Code requires that drainpipes slope at a minimum rate of ¼ inch to the foot. Maximum is 3 ½ inches per foot or true vertical. Slopes of less than a ¼ inch will cause constant clogging problems. More than 3 ½ inches allows the water to drain away leaving the solids in the pipe and then leading to clogging like cholesterol in the arteries.
The drains need to be vented where an appliance drain, sink, toilet or bath, enters the drainpipe. This prevents air lock and provides for the venting of noxious gases. Not all vents need to go through a roof, as multiple vents can share a single vent penetrating the roof. The Original $49.95 Plumber explores the different types of plumbing pipe materials and sizes below.
Types of Plumbing Pipes Materials
Originally ABS plastic was the material of choice for modern drains, but it has been found to have some durability issues with PVC becoming the material of choice. Back in the day very early drains were clay, then cast iron. However, even lead was used and the cast iron joints where filled with lead.
House Plumbing Pipe Sizes
Pipe size? Modern practice assigns a drainage fixture unit (dfu) to every fixture based on typical flow demand of the fixture or fixture group. The dfu is based on the gallons per minute needed to drain that fixture. Take toilets, the minimum diameter is 3 inches. Most fixtures require a 1 ½ to 2 inches inside diameter pipe. Toilets and bidet are 3 inches, and the primary line is usually 3 to 4 inches.
House Drainage Design System
Proper drain design is critical for effective and reliable drain and sewage. The home or building owner in most jurisdictions is responsible for the drain/sewage system out to where it mates with the municipal sewer system. Therefore it is on the homeowner to maintain and repair drains to the municipal sewer line. The old case iron systems are in many cases have outlived their usefulness and have deteriorated to the point of replacement. The shift to ABS started in the 1960’s and prior to that the primary drain material was cast iron.
Cast Iron & Other Material Pipe Lining
However, all is not lost. Some systems may be recoverable without replacement. Modern resin based plastic liners can be inserted in many older lines and extent their operational life. A fiber optic camera is inserted into the sewer and is used to inspect the drains, the remedies are discussed and decided upon. If possible, the liner is the most economical option as there is no or limited excavation of soil and no penetration of the street or curbs.
New Plumbing Technology
Today’s technology reaches into plumbing and drains. With modern materials replacing the original materials the utility, use life expectancy and unit cost reduction has made plumbing better. But taps, faucets and hose bibs are still made of brass for the premium items. But drains have matured and PVC or CPVC (heat resistant) rules supreme for commercial buildings and household drains.
Drain & Sewer Pipe Cleaning, Unclogging & More in Staten Island, Maspeth, Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Yonkers, Queens, NYC Boroughs, New York City NY
Synthetic materials like plastics have impacted modern plumbing like no other facet of building construction. Valuable strategic and commodity metals like copper are being replaced with synthetic tubing for hot and cold-water supply and PVC/CPVC for drains. The synthetics are more economically and less subject to major price swings that affect copper, brass and aluminum. Call The Original $49.95 Plumber for all of your drain and sewer plumbing needs!